Complacency significantly raises risk of damaging cyberattack worldwide!

19/12/2014
Inadequate training and a culture of complacency among many owners and operators of critical infrastructure are significantly raising the risks of highly damaging cyberattack throughout the world.

That’s the viewpoint expressed by Steve Mustard, an industrial cybersecurity subject-matter expert of the International Society of Automation (ISA),  an European registered Eur Ing and a British registered Chartered Engineer and consultant with extensive development and management experience in real-time embedded equipment and automation systems.

Mustard, fresh off a trip to the Caribbean where he delivered a presentation on industrial cybersecurity to industry officials in petroleum and petrochemical operations, says that despite greater overall awareness of the need for improved industrial cybersecurity, not nearly enough is being done to implement basic cybersecurity measures and reinforce them through adequate staff training and changes in corporate culture.

cybersecurity“Everywhere I go I see the same issues, so this is not so much a company-by-company issue as it is an ‘industry culture’ issue,” maintains Mustard, an ISA99 Security Standards Committee member and an important contributor to the development of the ISA99/IEC 62443 industrial cybersecurity standards. “So much work has been done in the IT world on security that many believe they have mitigated the risks.

“For example, most security experts at the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) meetings on the US Cybersecurity Framework could not understand why we were still discussing the most basic security controls, but yet a visit to almost any critical infrastructure facility will reveal that while there may be established policies and procedures in place, they are not properly embedded into training and the operational culture. Too many owner/operators I meet believe that because they have not seen a cybersecurity-based incident themselves that it will never happen. This sort of complacency is why there will be a major incident.”

He points to the steady flow of cyberattacks on industrial automation control systems (IACS) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks being tracked by the Repository of Industrial Security Incidents (RISI).

“There have been many incidents in the past 10-15 years that can be traced back to insufficient cybersecurity measures,” he says. “There are many every year, most of which escape public notice. In fact, it’s widely believed that there are many more that are never reported,” he discloses. “The RISI analysis shows time and again that these incidents are generally the result of the same basic cybersecurity control failures. It is often only the presence of external failsafe and protection mechanisms that these incidents do not lead to more catastrophic consequences. Many use these protection mechanisms to argue that the concern over the consequences of cyberattack is exaggerated, and yet incidents such as Deepwater Horizon should teach us that these protection mechanisms can and do fail.”

Emphasis on security seldom matches emphasis on safety; security influenced by significant reliance on third-party workers
While the need for safety is well understood in facilities such as offshore drilling rigs, attention to security is often minimal.

“This is partly because these facilities are usually so remote (i.e. 50 miles offshore) and/or appear to be secure (It’s not possible to just walk into an offshore or onshore facility without having the appropriate clearance.) and also because there is little or no experience of cybersecurity-related incidents, whereas there is usually some direct or anecdotal experience of safety-related incidents.

“Another issue is the very significant reliance on third parties to install and support IACS equipment,” Mustard continues. “This creates two issues—in-house staff often lack complete understanding of the equipment needed to provide reliable on-site support and there is a continuous flow of third-party staff in facilities. Although security is generally tight in these facilities, there is a lot of reliance on third parties to ensure their own contract staff are correctly vetted, and yet third parties may not be as thorough as owners and operators.

“Furthermore, third-party employees will have their own computers and removable media. The owner/operator may rely on the third party to scan their devices for malware before they are connected to the IACS equipment, but there is no guarantee that this is the case.”

USB flash drives and other USB devices continue to pose serious cybersecurity threats
“Use of USB devices still remains one of the most common ways an industrial control network can be infected. There are a number of factors at play. Many, or even most, IACS equipment runs without anti-virus software. Rarely, is the equipment ‘security hardened’ and very often default accounts and passwords are either hardcoded or not removed/changed before go-live.

“In addition, the operating systems and applications are often not patched at all or if they are, they are not patched regularly. This creates a whole host of vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malware. While most standards recommend the elimination of USB removable media devices and that all ports be locked down, this is rarely the case. Since machines are usually not connected to the Internet, removable media is often the only way to transfer files. And while IT policies might enforce virus scanning of such devices before and after use, this often does not get enforced in IACS environments.

thumbI heard recently anecdotally that a major oil and gas company detected the Stuxnet virus on its networks, and was found to have originated from an infected USB drive. This company has relatively good cybersecurity controls in place so you can imagine how easily this can happen in other organizations that have not yet grasped the importance of cybersecurity.”


Successful trial for new remote Phosphate monitor!

12/12/2014

Researchers at Britain’s Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) have conducted trials on the river Thames to evaluate a new remote phosphate monitoring technology (Cycle-P) as part of a high-frequency (hourly resolution) monitoring programme that is studying river nutrient concentrations and how they are affected by algal abundance. The monitoring system ran continuously over the summer of 2014, measuring total reactive phosphate levels in the river, day and night, seven days a week.

CEH_ThamesTrial2014

These results have now been compared with manually collected samples that were analysed in a laboratory with the traditional Murphy and Riley spectrophotometric method on unfiltered samples, and Dr Mike Bowes, senior nutrient hydrochemist at CEH, says: “The Cycle-P is working really well; the system operated independently for long periods and produced results that tracked our lab samples closely.”

Most water quality parameters are relatively simple to measure with low-power accurate sensors. However, the measurement of phosphate necessitates colorimetric analysis and this presents a significant challenge in remote locations with difficult access or where mains power is not available. The Cycle PO4 from OTT Hydrometry (known as the Cycle-P) is therefore gathering considerable interest because it is battery powered and able to operate unattended in the field, running over 1,000 tests before a field service is necessary to change the reagents.

The Cycle-P is an in-situ total reactive phosphate analyser that has been designed for operation by non-chemists. Combining microfluidics with state-of-the-art optics to provide high levels of precision and accuracy, the Cycle-P stores results in an onboard logger, but when combined with telemetry, delivers almost real-time data at user-selectable intervals (typically 1 to 4 hours). The quality of the instrument’s data is underpinned by QA/QC processing in conjunction with an on-board NIST standard. The Cycle-P methodology is based on US EPA standard methods, employing pre-mixed onboard colour coded cartridges for simple reagent replacement in the field.

Phosphate is a key nutrient in the maintenance of aquatic animal and plant life. However, it is also considered to be one of the most important pollutants in surface waters. Excessive quantities, through natural accumulation or derived from human activities such as wastewater treatment and agricultural runoff, can stimulate excessive growth of algae – algal blooms. This reduces light for plants and can lead to oxygen depletion, bacterial growth and eutrophication. In addition, some algal blooms produce toxins that are harmful to other organisms. High phosphate concentrations can therefore cause enormous ecological and aesthetic damage to streams, lakes, canals, rivers and oceans.

The River Thames basin is facing growing pressures from rapid population growth, intensive agriculture, climate change and water resource challenges. Researchers are therefore investigating the changes in water chemistry and ecology that are taking place as water quality improvements are implemented under the EU Water Framework Directive. These monitoring activities provide vital scientific evidence that inform future catchment management decisions.

thames_testDr Bowes has been running a Cycle-P in the Thames at Goring in Oxfordshire since 18th March 2014, as part of the CEH Thames Initiative Research Platform . He is head of the Water Quality Processes group, which has a long track record of using phosphorus auto-analysers, and is therefore an ideal person to assess the merits of this new technology. Furthermore, his research interests include: the impact of changing water quality on periphyton and phytoplankton biomass in rivers; nutrient loads to rivers from sewage and agriculture, and the identification of factors that control the timing and magnitude of algal blooms.

Mike has tried a number of phosphate monitoring technologies in the past but has found them to be either too unreliable or power-hungry. “Much of our work involves monitoring rivers in remote sites that do not have mains power, so I was naturally very interested to learn about the Cycle-P,” he explains. “Our research is designed to identify the causes of algal blooms and to understand the factors that trigger both blooms and algal dieback; the ability to monitor phosphate in remote locations is therefore critical to the success of our work, because manual or even automatic sampling for laboratory analysis, incurs significant delays and increases costs.”

“We were very pleased to be able to help with this research,” adds OTT Hydrometry’s Nigel Grimsley. “The impact of phosphates from agricultural run-off and wastewater treatment is one of the major issues affecting surface water quality and reliable continuous monitoring is essential if this issue is to be managed effectively.

“The Cycle-P has already worked extremely well in a variety of international projects, but it was vital for its capabilities to be demonstrated in UK waters, and the CEH Thames Initiative provided an ideal platform to do so. I am grateful to CEH for the opportunity that they have provided and I look forward to reporting feedback from a number of recent further UK installations.”


Dreamliner soars with safety lifecycle management!

08/12/2014

boing

Integrating control and safety requires a holistic safety mindset built around Safety Lifecycle Management, as specified by major safety standards such as IEC 61508, IEC 62061and ISO 13849. This is a systematic, phased approach to safety with steps that are well documented and verified, from initial hazard and risk analysis to safety system implementation all the way through to system decommissioning.

Integrating Safety
The steps in Integrating Safety are

• Design and engineering, including risk assessments and identification and definition of safety functions needed for a safe manufacturing process;
• Installation and commissioning, including testing of safety functions and training personnel in for safety;
• Operation and servicing, including access to documentation and spare parts for keeping machines functioning safely, periodically testing of operations and fast diagnosis of faults;
• Maintenance, including the inspection and regular replacement of safety-relevant components; and
• Modernization and upgrading, including the implementation of functional safety advancements as a
machine’s safety design and engineering allows.

Following these steps, Advanced Integration Technology (AIT), a 20-year-old supplier of turnkey industrial automation systems for the leading aerospace suppliers, made major strides in machine safety. As a prime contractor on the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, AIT had responsibility for the final assembly and body join functions, charged with delivering a fully automated positioning and joining system.

A comprehensive safety scheme with Safety PLCs is a central element in the system, which communicate using PROFINET. To help plant operators and safety engineers comply with the requirements of IEC 62061 and ISO 13849-1 standards, a TÜV certified online Safety Evaluation Tool (SET) was also available.

Alignment and Positioning
For the application, two complete assembly systems and one positioning system were provided. The three main sections of the fuselage are joined using 14 positioners mounted to transport structures that move either independently or interlocked and indexed to the factory floor for stability. Real-time positioning measurement data are logged with an integrated indoor GPS. AIT designed the alignment and positioning systems that roll under the aircraft dollies, radically reducing auxiliary equipment needs, materials handling requirements, and additional positioning steps.

dreamboingOnsite at Boeing, the 14 positioning system components were moved into their respective locations near the cradle dollies. Once the system is rigidly joined, a measurement system onboard locates the airplane sections. This information is fed to the system’s software application. From those data points, the system calculates how much each section (nose, tail, left and right wings) needed to move to ensure an exact fit to the adjoining section. This precise alignment ensures a smooth, rapid build of each fuselage.

Siemens was tapped to provide equipment for AIT. “We looked for a supplier with an off-the-shelf selection of automation and motion control solutions, who could offer us global support,” says Ed Chalupa, AIT’s president. “Our goal was to utilise all current software, integrated safety, and control technology advancements. Both Boeing and AIT were keenly sensitive to lifecycle security issues in this critical area of the project.”

Employing PROFINET
AIT designed the overall layout of the control architecture, programmed the Motion Control system with the PLC, distributed the I/O, and integrated safety, plus provided support on the Boeing internal structure and lifecycle support requirements. The basic scheme of the motion control system comprises: a motion controller, a Windows-based HMI, the Safety PLC, plus fail-safe and standard I/O modules (linked via PROFIsafe), all running on a PROFINET network. This basic architecture was then multiplied by the number of control nodes for each specific operational system in the overall production line being designed by AIT.

With the addition of a few PROFINET cables and mode selections, the final body-join assembly tool runs as a single entity. Running together in this configuration, the safety devices work coherently, providing proper response levels to all Emergency-stop situations. Each unit motion controller receives commands to perform uniform group movements with the tool as a whole via network communications from the HMI.

The integrated safety concept on this overall system is based upon three core principles: increasingly layered safety architectures, greater degrees of integration between the control and safety systems, plus more use of networking, especially PROFINET.

In operation, these safety principles manifest themselves in the form of physical barriers and mechanical means such as walls, gates, door interlocks, and more. They all isolate personnel from danger. Meanwhile, the control systems including safety PLCs monitor operating conditions within established parameters. The final protections are safety shutdown systems such as automatic shutdown via PROFIsafe-enabled safety PLC and manual shutdown via E-stops.

Conclusion
With integrated safety and control, the project has a single system for standard and safe automation. Having one PROFINET network and one engineering system for both standard and safety technology, further reduces cost. As a collateral benefit, the software solutions allow easier replication of series machines.

Likewise, faster troubleshooting and extensive diagnostics onboard reduces downtimes, with faster restart after issue resolution. Functionally too, safety integration in the control system allows uniform user interfaces and data libraries, plus a reduction in the variety of control cabinets.

With advanced PLC and PROFINET networking technologies combined, the system safety for AIT and its customer is a production asset that protects the workers from harm and also ensures maximum availability and uptime. Reductions in initial capital expense and field operating expense are also realised.


A fascinating story: Trash to gas project to help life on Mars!

30/11/2014
If you are travelling to Mars on a journey that will last for several months, you need to maintain good breathing air quality and you need to manage your resources very carefully. This article describes research on the off-gases from astronaut waste; checking that they are not harmful and figuring out if they can be converted into water, oxygen and rocket propellant.

As part of a project to measure the effects of long-term isolation on astronauts, small groups of individuals have been selected to live in a tiny ‘Habitat’ perched on the upper slope of a volcano in Hawaii. In doing so, the project team has contributed to the understanding of issues that would confront a manned mission to Mars.

NASA’s Anne Caraccio analyzing waste gases during simulated Mars mission

NASA’s Anne Caraccio analyzing waste gases during simulated Mars mission

For example NASA’s Anne Caraccio studied off-gases from the crew’s trash with a portable Gasmet FTIR gas analyzer. “Waste from the crew’s everyday activities are routinely sorted and stored, but we need to know the composition of the off-gases from these materials for health and safety reasons, and also to determine whether these gases could be utilised beneficially,” Anne reports.

The work was undertaken during the second of four HI-SEAS (Hawaiʻi Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) missions which involved living with 5 other crew members for a period of 120 days in a two-story solar powered dome just 11 metres in diameter with a small attached workshop the size of a shipping container. In addition to the completion of a range of tasks that were set by the project, each crew member conducted their own research, which in Anne’s case was known as ‘Trash to Gas’, a programme working on the development of a reactor to convert waste from long-duration missions into useful commodities such as water, life-support oxygen and rocket propellant.

The main objective of the second HI-SEAS mission was to evaluate the performance and the social and psychological status of the crew members whilst they lived in cramped isolated conditions in a lava rock environment that resembled Mars.

Crew members were allowed outside of the Habitat, but in order to do so they had to wear simulated spacesuits and undergo a 5 minute mock compression/decompression. Since the FTIR gas analyser is portable (14Kg), Anne was able to conduct additional monitoring both inside and outside the Habitat in order to compare data with the waste off-gas measurements. “Size, weight and portability are obviously of major importance on a project such as this, but the main advantage of this technology was its ability to measure a large number of compounds simultaneously; I measured 24 VOCs such as acetaldehyde, methane and ethylene, but the instrument also stores spectra for the measurements so it is possible to retrospectively analyze data if it becomes necessary to look for a particular compound at a later stage.”

Anne’s monitoring provided a clear view of the most important gases within the Habitat. For example, stored waste had the highest relative levels of ethanol (due to crew members’ hygiene wipes and cleaning products) and water vapor (due to residual water from food and plant waste). The laboratory where plants were growing had the lowest relative level of methane. The waste bins had higher relative levels of nitrous oxide and pentane, and the bathroom had the highest levels of acetaldehyde.

The FTIR gas analyser, a DX4040, was supplied by the company Gasmet Technologies. “We were very pleased to be able to help with this project,” says Gasmet’s Jim Cornish. “The simultaneous monitoring of multiple compounds is a common application for our FTIR analyzers, however, they are usually employed measuring gases in stack emissions, industrial processes, greenhouse gas research and in hazmat scenarios. We usually tell prospective customers that advanced FTIR technology is simple to use; ‘it’s not rocket science’ we tell them, so I guess we will have to rephrase that now.”

The waste produced during the HI-SEAS mission was measured during the entire mission, although this was for a shorter period than would be expected of an actual long duration mission. The Trash-to-Gas reactor processed HI-SEAS waste simulant at the Kennedy Space Center with results demonstrating that a future reactor would be most efficient with specific material processing cycles to maximize the desired output. Automation will also be needed in the future Trash-to-Gas reactor because the current technology would require too much of a crew member’s logistical time. The Trash-to-Gas reactor first converts waste into carbon dioxide, which is then mixed with hydrogen in a Sabatier reaction to produce methane and water.

The Kennedy Space Center Trash-to-Gas reactor processed three waste types and produced 9% of the power that would have been needed during the HI-SEAS mission. As part of the psychological assessment, each member of the crew completed regular surveys and kept diaries. They also wore ‘sociometric’ badges that recorded conversation patterns and voice tone.

Commenting on the psychological results of the project, Anne says “The crew were essentially strangers when they entered the Habitat, which is unlike a typical space mission in which the crew would have worked and trained together for a number of months or even years. Nevertheless, the crew coped extremely well with living and working in such close proximity, and there were no significant periods of stress in my opinion.”

The third Hi-SEAS mission began on October 15, 2014. Again, a 6 member crew will conduct a similar mission, with the exception that it will last for 8 months. Anne says: “Participation in these missions requires a real passion for science, technology and space travel. The application process includes a class 2 flight medical, a personal research project proposal, essays, interviews and educational requirements, all of which is similar to the NASA astronaut application procedure.” Looking forward, she says: “The technology to travel to Mars has not yet been fully developed, but it is anticipated that a human mission could be possible in the future. The journey to Mars would take around one year, so I hope that our Trash-to-Gas research will contribute to the science that could make such a mission possible.”


Pressure Transducer Delivers water level monitoring in emergency tank shower!

24/11/2014

Applied Measurements were recently contacted by spill control and containment manufacturer Empteezy, to provide a sensor to be used within an emergency tank shower.  The emergency tank shower is ideal for use in locations where a constant water supply and adequate water pressure cannot be guaranteed.

Emergency_showerThe Challenge 
To ensure the emergency tank shower is able to provide a flow of 75.7ltrs per minute of water for 15 minutes, fulfilling the ANSI Z358.1 regulations for emergency tank showers.

The Problem 
Once a gravity fed shower is switched on and the water level within the tank drops, both the water pressure and the flow rate at the shower head decreases.  In order to achieve the flow rate of 75.7ltrs per minute of water for the full 15 minutes, the emergency tank shower needs to contain a minimum of 2000ltrs of water within the tank.

The Solution
Applied Measurements provided Empteezy with a Pi600 series pressure transducer.  The pressure transducer was connected and calibrated to the digital readout scale on the front of the shower, giving an accurate reading of the litres of water remaining in the tank.  When the water level falls below the minimum safety level, a signal is sent to the sounder strobe alarm on the front of the shower.  This signal has a dual function. Firstly, alerting safety personnel that the water level has dropped below the minimum, notifying them to refill the shower to achieve the required flow rate and water pressure. Secondly, that the shower has been operated and an injured employee may need assistance.

Pi600The Pi600 Series of Pressure Transducers
The Pi600 series of pressure sensors are designed for the measurement of gas and liquid pressure across a wide range of general purpose and industrial applications such as hydraulics, medical, research and development, meteorology and food processing.  Constructed from stainless steel with a ceramic diaphragm and viton ‘O’ ring seal as standard, they are designed to be extremely rugged, yet compact in design.

Key Features Include:

  • Ranges 0-50mbar up to 0-700bar
  • Wide Variety of Outputs: mV/ Volts / mA
  • Can be Offered Calibrated in Metres Water Gauge
  • Sealed to IP65 (plug & socket) or IP66/68 (Cable)
  • Accuracy: <±0.25%/FS (0.1% option)
  • Gauge or Absolute Versions
  • Various Pressure Port Options (G1/4” male as standard)
  • Excellent Chemical and Abrasion Resistance
  • Rugged Construction
  • Full Customisation Possible

These pressure transducers come in pressure ranges of 0-50mbar and 0-700bar in absolute or gauge versions, with a wide choice of electrical output signals from its ASIC-based amplifier circuit.  These outputs include, 4-20mA, 0-5Vdc & 0-10Vdc, 1-6Vdc and 10mV/V, as well as a ratiometric 0.5-4.5Vdc signal that requires a 5Vdc supply to suit most data loggers.  The Pi600 series of pressure transducers can also be supplied with any of our wide range of instrumentation to give you a complete calibrated system.

In addition, the series can be completely customised to suit your application including; custom process connections, alternate case and ‘O’ ring material for applications where aggressive media is present, and higher IP ratings for more challenging environments.

The Pi600 series of pressure transducers have proved vital in Empteezy’s emergency tank shower units, enabling engineers to guarantee the water pressure and flow rate of the units.  We are always looking for new and exciting challenges so contact our technical sales team today on +44 (0) 118 981 7339 or info@appmeas.co.uk to discuss your application.


#WWEM14 “better, bigger, busier!”

21/11/2014
It is harder than ever to prize people away from their desks and laboratories these days, so it is all the more gratifying that WWEM continues to grow, with this year’s event attracting 15% more visitors than WWEM 2012 – that’s consistent growth with every event since the first in 2005.

Running over 2 days in early November, WWEM 2014 was an outstanding success, with sustained growth in every event since the first WWEM in 2005. “In comparison with the last WWEM in 2012, visitor numbers were up by 15% and even though the size of the exhibition was increased by 12% we were still unable to accommodate several potential exhibitors,” reports organiser Marcus Pattison.

WWEM2014WWEM 2014 focused on Water, Wastewater and Environmental Monitoring, and is comprised of a wide range of activities that are designed to update and inform anyone in the water sector with a professional interest in testing and monitoring. “WWEM 2014 was different,” explains Marcus Pattison, “previous WWEM events have included Conferences, Workshops and an Exhibition, but this year’s show also included a number of specialist forums, seminars and a demonstration area, and I believe that this is the major reason for the event’s continued growth. 30% of the exhibitors were so pleased that they re-booked during the show and it is clear that there will be an influx of new exhibitors from those companies that visited WWEM 2014 as delegates.”

Conference: ‘Regulation Updates for Process Operators’
The first day’s conference provided delegates with the latest information on the regulations, technologies and methods that are required for testing and monitoring the environmental emissions of regulated processes. This included advice from Rick Gould on how to obtain a good score in the Environment Agency’s Operator Monitoring Assessment (OMA) – a systematic tool for auditing the monitoring provisions required by legislation. Focusing on water quality monitoring, the Agency’s Andrew Chappell outlined many of the challenges faced by those responsible for this task and explained how the MCERTS scheme has underpinned the quality of monitoring. He also provided an update on the development of a CEN standard (BS EN 16479:2014) for automatic samplers and water quality monitoring equipment, and explained that this could be superseded by an ISO standard.

MCERTS is operated on behalf of the Environment Agency by Sira, and the British Accreditation Service (UKAS) accredits Sira to undertake MCERTS product and personnel certification. Sira’s Emily Alexander explained that whilst monitoring technology has advanced considerably, instrument performance has not always improved at the same rate, which underlines the need for independent testing and certification. Andy Godley from WRc then explained the testing procedure for instruments, both in the field and in the laboratory. Emphasising the need for robust traceable test programmes, Andy said: “Test plans should be agreed as early as possible and variations should be discussed as soon as they occur.”

Finally, Nick Richardson from Siris Environmental outlined ‘the Good, the Bad and the Ugly’ of flow monitoring installations. His presentation featured photographs of good installations in addition to a broad selection of those that left room for improvement. The most common errors highlighted were: non-MCERTS compliant design; over-sized or under-sized installations; poorly designed access for maintenance; installations that are difficult to verify or calibrate, and installations at which the wrong system had been deployed (e.g. weir on inlet).

Laboratory Conference: Accreditation, Innovation and Communication
The second day’s Conference was hosted by the BMTA (British Measurement and Testing Association) and was aimed primarily at managers and senior staff in environmental laboratories, but the techniques and quality procedures discussed were also of interest to staff in other types of laboratory. The presentations dealt with the methods of achieving quality and consistency in sampling and in laboratory measurements, and the speakers represented the national accreditation body, UKAS, large water companies and commercial laboratory-based organisations.

Speakers from UKAS explained that all accredited laboratories should participate in proficiency testing where such schemes are available and relevant to their scope of accreditation. They also provided an outline of TPS 47, the UKAS document on Participation in Proficiency Testing Schemes, which describes the evaluation of participant performance against pre-established criteria by means of inter-laboratory comparisons.

Hazel Davidson from Derwentside Environmental Testing Services (DETS) then explained some of the issues relating to good sampling technique and described how lower limits of detection can be achieved by improved techniques, advanced instrumentation and by using larger sample volumes.

Professor Clive Thompson and Paul Gribble from ALcontrol delivered a presentation entitled: ‘Sampling and analysis in relation to the Priority Substances Directive 2012/39/EU’ in which they explained that some of the environmental quality standards limits that have been set are unrealistically low, “almost to homeopathic levels!” they said. Highlighting the enormous cost incurred by testing for extremely low levels of a large number of compounds, the speakers called for more realistic regulations. “Regulators should liaise with analysts when setting limits, and a group of accredited laboratories should be established to work together to develop achievable standards (similar to MCERTS).”

Explaining the advantages of a new mobile sample tracking technology Kyle Norris from the Water Quality Sampling Team at Northumbrian Water, and Sam Goddard from CSols Ltd gave a presentation on ‘Remote Sampler’, a secure mobile data capture system. Each water sampling technician operates remotely with a handheld device linked through a central hub to a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). The system improves sample data quality by reducing transcription errors while allowing existing accredited sampling procedures to be followed.

South West Water, in collaboration with the University of Portsmouth and Natural Resources Wales, have developed methods using the Chemcatcher™ passive sampler to monitor for a range of acid herbicides including Mecoprop and MCPA, and the molluscicide Metaldehyde in surface waters. This subject was addressed by Lewis Jones, South West Water’s Future Quality Obligations and R&D Manager, who outlined the development of a Chemcatcher-based sampling method for the monitoring of polar pesticides in water.

In the final presentation, Bob Poole from Thermo Fisher Scientific explained how today’s laboratory software can be applied to deliver a fully automated, efficient and intelligent approach to sample receipt and scheduling, resource management, collecting, processing and acting upon results, and securely managing the vast amounts of data produced.

BMSS Seminar
A further laboratory seminar was organised by the Environmental and Food Analysis Special Interest Group, EFASIG, which is a special interest group of the British Mass Spectrometry Society (BMSS). Entitled ‘The application of chromatography-mass spectrometry to environmental water analysis’ the seminar ran in the afternoon of the first day at WWEM 2014. Nine speakers from academia, commercial laboratories, instrument manufacturers and industrial companies provided short presentations focusing on specific environmental analytical challenges.

Flow Forum and Apprentice Competition
Hosted by Oliver Grievson from the Water Industry Process Automation & Control Group, the morning of the first day saw Instrumentation Apprentices from Anglian Water, Thames Water and Welsh Water gather at the Flow Forum where they were given a variety of scenarios/challenges to complete. They were then sent off into the exhibition to talk to the plethora of suppliers that held the key to their questions.

Oliver Grievson then described the experiences that he had gained from a programme of 80 flow meter installations during 2012. This demonstrated that the main cost was with the installation of flow meters rather than the flow meters themselves. Following this a presentation by Simon Richardson of Siris Environmental demonstrated where installations have typically gone right and wrong. He highlighted the case of a flume at Coltishall Wastewater Treatment Works which was an ‘ideal’ installation, and also cited others where installations were less than ideal.

WWEM2014Eight different suppliers then gave presentations on traditional technologies such as ultrasonic and time of flight flow measurement to the newer technologies involving microwave, laser and radar. The eight presentations covered ultrasonic level, time of flight ultrasonic, Coriolis mass flow measurement, radar non-contact area velocity, radar level, area velocity, laser non-contact area velocity and microwave flow measurement.

An open question session finished off the Flow Forum with an opportunity to discuss the various technologies presented as well as any other burning issues concerning flow measurement. Summing up, host Oliver Grievson offered to set up a permanent flow forum if it was desired by the water industry as a whole.

The Instrumentation Apprentice Competition resumed in the afternoon, with the contestants set tasks by the three sponsors – ABB, Partech and Siemens. The apprentices were asked to: diagnose (pre-arranged) faults in an electro-magnetic flow meter; change the seal on a Turbitech turbidity monitor, and programme an ultra-sonic level meter over a V-notch which had been provided by Siris Environmental. The final task of the competition was the WRc hosted Question & Answer session, at which Andy Godley posed questions that tested both their technical and practical knowledge of instrumentation. The sponsors and supporting organisations then marked and assessed the performance of the teams and the winners were announced at the WWEM 2014 Gala Dinner. The Apprentice Competition was won by the Anglian Water team of Matthew Stephens and Harry Power with the team from Welsh Water, Will Williams and Alexander Smith, coming second. The remaining two teams from Thames Water (Darren Ewer and Kayne Chamber-Blucher) and Anglian Water (Harry Myers and Dominic Prime) shared third place.

Commenting after the event, winner Matthew Stephens explained that his apprenticeship with Anglian Water started with a year at college, followed by three years of block release. “I found the tasks very interesting,” he said. “As a result of my training I found the practical tasks relatively simple, although the technical questions were more challenging. We came to WWEM not really knowing what to expect but it was great to see so much of the industry in one place, and a walk around the exhibition was a good learning experience.”

A separate seminar was also run on PROFIBUS, a fieldbus communication technology, focusing on its application in the water, waste and environmental sectors, and Merck Millipore delivered a special session on the possible ban of the manufacture of COD tube/cell tests.

Smart Water Forum
This session began with a dissemination workshop from UKWIR. The study, which was completed by Jacobs, examined the trends in wastewater instrumentation, process automation & control and described the needs, trends and barriers that the UK water industry faces, including a resistance to the use of instrumentation. Oliver Grievson (Water Industry Process Automation & Control), who hosted the Forum, then gave a presentation on the future of instrumentation and its worth in AMP 6, giving examples of “Smart Solutions” that are available now.

Laurie Reynolds of Aquamatix described the Internet of Things and its place in the Water Industry, and how the way in which instrumentation data is currently captured and processed is set to change from a distributed network to a more dynamic way of working.

James Dunning from Syrinix then explained that in order for Smart Water innovations to be adopted by the industry, an improved financial approach needs to be taken. Providing a case study on pressure transients within the water distribution network, James explained that the cost of instrumentation is far outweighed by the losses that pressure transients can cause.

Tony Halker from Intellitect Water then described the involvement of miniature sensors and sonde technology in the Smart Water4Europe Project. Tony explained that the measurement and visibility of water quality in the potable water distribution network, between the treatment plant and the customer’s tap, is something the industry has sought for decades.

International Exhibition
The core WWEM exhibitors come back time after time, but as the importance of the event continues to grow, new companies from all over the world are drawn in with each show. This year, the exhibition was bigger than ever, featuring over 130 stands representing more than 250 of the world’s leading providers of test and monitoring equipment and related services.

WWEM2014As a specialist event, the aisles of the WWEM exhibition are populated by visitors with a professional interest in testing or monitoring in the water sector, so feedback from the exhibitors was unanimously positive. “Great venue, well organised, well attended, great leads, what more can I say?” said Jeremy Smith from Aquamatic. Nigel Grimsley from OTT Hydrometry agreed: “WWEM 2014 was very good for us – we received some excellent leads and held some very interesting discussions with key players in the water and weather monitoring sectors. Our flow monitoring products, the new HL4 water quality monitoring system and the Pluvio2 raingauge were particularly popular with visitors.”

Emphasising the importance of the event as an opportunity to meet the whole industry, Steve Tuck from PPM said: “WWEM is an ideal opportunity for knowledge transfer and networking amongst the water community.”

From a laboratory equipment supplier’s perspective, Natalie Barton from SEAL Analytical said: “We launched a new discrete analyser at WWEM so we were delighted to meet so many customers and prospects from commercial, utility and research labs.”

Xylem Analytics launched three major new products at the show. Expressing his delight, General Manager Darren Hanson said: “WWEM 2014 was a particularly important event for us, and with a focus on water testing and monitoring almost every WWEM visitor was interested in at least one of the new products. The new YSI ProDSS is the most advanced portable multiparameter instrument that we have ever developed and was the subject of a well-attended workshop, as was the new WTW UV-VIS sensor range. We also took advantage of the demonstration area to explain the advantages of the IQ SENSOR NET wastewater treatment plant monitoring system.”

Over 80 Workshops!
The Workshops ran almost continuously throughout the 2 days and covered an enormous variety of subjects within the overall testing and monitoring theme. These included flow monitoring presentations covering technologies such as laser, ultrasonics, clamp-on, magnetic flow and integrated flow and pressure metering. Water quality workshops covered the measurement of almost every parameter of interest including TOC, turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, trace metals, organic loading and toxicity. These presentations included handheld instruments as well as continuous and remote monitors, and also addressed data collection techniques and data management software.

Many of the process monitoring workshops examined common operational issues such as chemical precipitation in wastewater treatment, flood defence and asset monitoring, real-time sewer and CSO monitoring, and leakage monitoring and management.

Two of the eight workshop rooms were dedicated to gas detection and monitoring and these presentations covered technologies such as PID, NDIR, electrochemical and pyroelectric sensors. Workplace exposure, instrument calibration and the creation and certification of calibration standards were among the themes of these workshops.

Laboratory analysis was a common theme of many workshops. For example, a presentation by CitySprint examined the challenges faced by sample couriers and another looked at AQC charting software. Laboratory accreditation was also addressed in addition to specialist subjects such as the preparation of inorganic standards, complete ion analysis, TOC, COD, total cyanide and toxicity testing. There were presentations on automated pH and turbidity testing in addition to seminars on lab robotics. One of the speakers also provided a comparison between online and laboratory analysis of TOC, ammonia and BOD. With US EPA approval for the ChlordioX™ Plus, Palintest delivered a workshop entitled ’10 things you need to know about the monitoring of total residual oxidants’.

Instrumentation Demonstration Area
This year and for the first time, WWEM included a Supplier Instrumentation Demo area. WRc hosted this area which, over the 2 days, saw 25 companies provide demonstrations of their technology to those attending the exhibition. Everything from sample preparation technology through to toxic gas detection was demonstrated highlighting the breadth of technologies on show.

WWEM2014Leo Carswell, Head of Technology at WRc, comments: “WRc were delighted to be the first host the new ‘Demo Lab’ which has been a huge success and offered delegates the hands-on experience that is often lacking at exhibitions. The high quality of these demonstrations showed the passion and enthusiasm that suppliers have for their technologies.”

British Water & WWEM 2014 Innovation Exchange
Running throughout the first day of WWEM 2014, this event brought together Water Companies, their partners, and representatives from other water-using industries with British Water members and non-members to identify technology needs and explore available and potential solutions. The day included concurrent workshops on Water Monitoring, Wastewater Monitoring, and Environmental Monitoring, led by British Water, Black & Veatch, and J.Murphy & Sons respectively. The participants included Affinity Water, Bristol Water, United Utilities, Yorkshire Water, Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water, Thames Water and many of the industry’s key contractors.

Gala Dinner
Following a black-tie dinner, MCERTS instrument certificates were awarded to ABB, BioTector, Endress+Hauser, GE, HACH LANGE, Krohne, Mobrey, Nivus, Partech, PPM, Pulsar, Siemens, Sirco Controls, Teledyne ISCO and YSI. MCERTS inspector certificates were awarded to Aaron Hiden and Phil Rose from Critical Flow Systems, and to Simon Richardson from SIRIS Environmental Flow Surveys.

Reflecting on the success of WWEM 2014, organiser Marcus Pattison said: “In this internet age it can be difficult to prize people away from their desks and lab benches. However, it is important to remember that there are 3 ways in which people find new opportunities: active searching, opportunity creation and fortuitous discovery. People can actively search on the internet, but they only usually find what they are looking for, whereas visitors to WWEM events are creating opportunity; they are actively seeking and finding information that they need, and they are also creating opportunity for fortuitous discovery – finding something that they weren’t necessarily looking for!

“I hope that every visitor to WWEM found what they were looking for, networked with key industry professionals and returned home tired but content in the knowledge that they had invested their time wisely. I look forward to helping them to do so again at WWEM 2016 on 2nd and 3rd November.”


Three in four across 10 countries fearful Cyber Attacks could damage their country’s economy.

16/11/2014

Three quarters of surveyed adults (75 percent) across 10 countries say they are fearful that cyber hackers are carrying out attacks on major industries and sectors of the economy in their countries, according to the results of a study announced recently by Honeywell Process Solutions.

cyberbugMany survey respondents (36 percent) indicate they do not believe that it is possible to stop all the cyber attacks. A similar proportion (36 percent globally) report they don’t have faith in their country’s ability to keep up with cyber attacks because they feel that governments and organizations are not taking these threats seriously enough, particularly those respondents in India (61 percent), China (48 percent), and Mexico (47 percent).

“Cyber attacks are a clear and present threat to every industry, in every country throughout the world,” said Michael Chertoff, co-founder and executive chairman of the Chertoff Group, and former head of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. “This threat is real and industries need a proactive and coordinated approach to protect their assets as well as their intellectual property. We have seen a number of attacks to critical industries in areas like the Middle East and the U.S. and these have had major impacts on their operations.”

The British government estimates that cyber security breaches at British energy companies alone cost those companies about 400 million pounds ($664 million) every year. In the United States, the Department of Homeland Security said that more than 40 percent of industrial cyber attacks targeted the energy industry in 2012, the last full year reported.

Methodology
These are findings of a poll conducted by Ipsos Public Affairs Research, September 2- 16, 2014. For the survey, a sample of 5,065 adults across 10 countries was interviewed online. This included approximately 500 interviews in each of Australia, Mexico, Russia, Brazil, China, India, Japan, the United Arab Emirates, Great Britain and the United States. Results are weighted to the general adult population ages 16–64 in each country (or in the U.S. 18–64). A survey with an unweighted probability sample of 5,065 adults and a 100% response rate would have an estimated margin of error of +/- 1.4 percentage point, 19 times out of 20 of what the results would have been had the entire population of adults in the participating countries been polled. Each individual country would have an estimated margin of error of 4.4 percentage points. All sample surveys and polls may be subject to other sources of error, including, but not limited to coverage error, and measurement error.

“These survey results are not surprising in light of the recent cyber attacks that have made headlines in several areas around the world,” said Jeff Zindel, leader of HPS’ Industrial Cyber Security business. “The impacts of these attacks, as well as others that have not been publicly reported, have cost companies and governments billions of dollars through operational issues and loss of intellectual property.”

For more than a decade, HPS has developed and delivered cyber security technology and solutions to industrial customers around the world through its Honeywell Industrial Cyber Security organization. This team has delivered more than 500 industrial cyber security projects integrated with its process automation solutions which are used at sites such as refineries, chemical plants, gas processing units, power plants, mines and mills.

In December 2014, HPS will establish the Honeywell Industrial Cyber Security Lab near Atlanta (GA USA). The lab will expand the company’s research capabilities and will feature a model of a complete process control network which Honeywell cyber security experts will leverage to develop, test and certify industrial cyber security solutions. This lab will help accelerate proprietary research and development of new cyber technologies and solutions to help defend industrial facilities, operations and people.

Among other findings of the survey:

• Four in ten (40 percent) survey respondents are not sure about how well their government or private industrial sectors are able to defend against cyber hackers, including 10 percent who are not at all confident.
• When asked about the vulnerability of nine critical industry sectors (which have varying degrees of computer and internet security systems in place to guard against cyber hackers), majorities of respondents globally see all sectors as being vulnerable to cyber attacks. Industrial sectors likely to be perceived as vulnerable to such attacks include oil and gas production (64 percent), medical/health care/pharmaceuticals (64 percent), power grid (63 percent), chemicals (61 percent) and aerospace/defense (59 percent).
• Those in India (92%) and Japan (89%) are most worried about cyber attacks, whereas Russian adults (53%) express the lowest level of overall concern.
• Among those who are relatively unconcerned about cyber hackers (“not very fearful” or “not at all fearful”), no single factor stands out as a primary justification. Many (31 percent) say that this is because they believe the risk of something major actually happening is really quite low, particularly in Australia (52 percent).

Other reasons for lower levels of concern include:

• Cyber hackers would have already done something big if they actually had these capabilities (25%),
• Computer and Internet security has been able to counter or block almost all of the threats (24%); or,
• Governments and its intelligence and armed forces will not let this happen (24%).


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