Air pollution – the invisible roadside killer.

14/12/2015

The VW emissions scandal has helped to raise awareness of the deadly threat posed by air pollution in many of our towns and cities. In the following article, Jim Mills, Managing Director of Air Monitors, an instrumentation company, explains why diesel emissions will have to be lowered and how the latest monitoring technology will be an essential part of the solution.

Background
The World Health Organisation has estimated that over 500,000 Europeans die prematurely every year as a result of air pollution – especially fine particulates from combustion processes and vehicles. Of these, around 30,000 are in Britain; however, experts believe that the figures could be substantially higher if the effects of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are also taken into consideration.

London Smog - now less visible!

London Smog – now less visible!

Historically, air pollution was highly visible, resulting in air pollution episodes such as the Great London Smog in 1952. However, today’s air pollution is largely invisible (fine particulates and NO2 for example), so networks of sophisticated monitors are necessary.

The greatest cause for alarm is the air quality in our major towns and cities where vehicles (main diesels) emit high levels of NO2 and particulates in ‘corridors’ that do not allow rapid dispersion and dilution of the pollutants. Urban vehicles also emit more pollution than free-flowing traffic because of the continual stopping and starting that is necessary.

As a result of its failure to meet European air quality limits, the Government was taken to the UK Supreme Court in April 2015 by ClientEarth, an organisation of environmental lawyers. In a unanimous judgement against Defra (English Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), the Court required the urgent development of new air quality plans. In September 2015 Defra published its Draft Air Quality Plans, but they have not been well received; respondents have described them as disappointing and unambitious. CIWEM (The Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management) , an organisation representing environmental management professionals, for example, said: (the plans) “rely on unfunded clean air zones and unproven vehicle emission standards.”

Some commentators believe that Defra should follow Scotland’s lead, following the publication, in November 2015, of ‘Cleaner Air for Scotland – The Road to a Healthier Future’ (CAFS). Key to this strategy is its partnership approach, which engages all stakeholders. Under CAFS, the Scottish Government will work closely with its agencies, regional transport partnerships, local authorities (transport, urban and land-use planners and environmental health), developers, employers, businesses and citizens. CAFS specifies a number of key performance indicators and places a heavy emphasis on monitoring. A National Low Emission Framework (NLEF) has been designed to enable local authorities to appraise, justify the business case for, and implement a range of, air quality improvement options related to transport (and associated land use).

Traffic-related air pollution
In addition to the fine particulates that are produced by vehicles, around 80% of NOx emissions in areas where Britain is exceeding NO2 limits are due to transport. The largest source is emissions from diesel light duty vehicles (cars and vans). Clearly, there is now enormous pressure on vehicle manufacturers to improve the quality of emissions, but urgent political initiatives are necessary to address the public health crisis caused by air pollution.

A move to electric and hybrid vehicles is already underway and developments in battery technology will help improve the range and performance of these vehicles, and as they become more popular, their cost is likely to lower. The prospect of driverless vehicles also offers hope for the future; if proven successful, they will reduce the need for car ownership, especially in cities, thereby reducing the volume of pollution emitting vehicles on the roads.

Vehicle testing is moving out of the laboratory in favour of real-world driving emissions testing (RDE) which will help consumers to choose genuinely ‘clean’ vehicles. However, the ultimate test of all initiatives to reduce traffic-related air pollution is the effect that they have on the air that people breathe.

Ambient air quality monitoring
Networks of fixed air quality monitoring stations provide continual data across the UK, accessible via the Defra website and the uBreathe APP. Many believe that this network contains an insufficient number of monitoring points because measurement data has to be heavily supplemented with modelling. However, these reference monitoring stations, while delivering highly accurate and precise data, are expensive to purchase, calibrate and service. They also require a significant footprint and mains electricity, so it is often difficult or impossible to locate them in the locations of most interest – the pollution hotspots.

Public sector budgets are under pressure, so the cost of running the national monitoring network and those systems operated by Local Authorities is a constant source of debate. The challenge for technology companies is therefore to develop air quality monitors that are more flexible in the locations in which they are able to operate and less costly in doing so.

Air Monitors’s response

New technology
Air Monitors has developed a small, battery-powered, web-enabled, air quality monitor ‘AQMesh’, which can be quickly and easily mounted on any lamp post or telegraph pole at a fraction of the cost of traditional monitors. Consequently, for the first time ever, it is possible to monitor air quality effectively, where it matters most; outside schools, on the busiest streets and in the places where large numbers of people live and breathe.AQMesh_podAQMesh ‘pods’ are completely wireless, using GPRS communications to transmit data for the five main air polluting gases to ‘the cloud’ where sophisticated data management generates highly accurate readings as well as monitoring hardware performance. In addition, it is now possible to add a particulate monitor to new AQMesh pods.AQMesh does not deliver the same level of precision as reference stations, but this new technology decreases the cost of monitoring whilst radically improving the availability of monitoring data, especially in urban areas where air quality varies from street to street.The flexibility of these new monitors is already being exploited by those responsible for traffic-related pollution – helping to measure the effects of traffic management changes for example. However, this new level of air quality data will also be of great value to the public; helping them to decide where to live, which routes to take to work and which schools to send their children to.

Energy efficient obsolete technology has a new name.

15/11/2015

You may already be familiar with the phrase ‘Eco Obsolete Technology’ (EOT), but you may not be aware of what it refers to or how it came about. The phrase was created by obsolete automation components supplier, European Automation as a way of referring to obsolete technology that is energy efficient and therefore compliant with the latest energy efficiency standards.

EPA272The lion’s share of European Automation’s sales comes from obsolete industrial automation parts that can be several decades old. In recent years, European Automation’s sales team noticed an increase in the energy efficiency requirements of its clients, as a result of tightening energy regulations for industry. The concept of Eco Obsolete Technology was born out of the need to make conversations with clients easier.

“With international standards such as ISO 50001 and programmes like the Ecodesign Directive and the Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme, being energy efficient is as important as being cost efficient to many plant managers,” explains Jonathan Wilkins, marketing director of European Automation. “Implementing Eco Obsolete Technology fulfils both objectives, reducing your carbon footprint whilst avoiding a costly system upgrade.

“Over specification is a historic issue in the world of industrial automation, especially when it comes to motors. It is not until the equipment is tested by a lead assessor that energy efficiency questions start being asked.”

“Many business owners think that cutting their carbon footprint will prove costly. In fact, by implementing Eco Obsolete Technology in your facility, you can significantly improve your efficiency for a considerably smaller cost,” explains Jeremy Lefroy, current MP for Stafford constituency. “Across the UK, many manufacturers are already using Eco Obsolete Technology without knowing it. By giving this type of technology a name, European Automation is reaching out to the industry as a whole and encouraging the conversation on energy efficiency.”


European Automation can provide almost any spare EOT part to be retrofitted into a system. With a vast network of authorised suppliers, European Automation sources and delivers energy efficient obsolete parts anywhere in the world in record time. European Automation also publishes online magazine, AUTOMATED, which focuses on industry specific content such as special reports and useful guides. The magazine is published in print every three months.

@EUAuto #EOT #Environment #PAuto


Countdown to February 2016 – Preparing for CEC Level VI.

09/10/2015

Jon Vallis – Sales and Marketing Manager, Ideal Power, discusses the impending regulations.

Successes in reducing the no-load power of external power supplies has resulted in estimated savings of 32billionKW in energy consumption, a reduction in CO² emissions by more than 24million tons and an annual saving of $2.5billion – €2.2bn or £stg1.64bn – (US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency figures). These figures are impressive, and the result of a decade of regulation and programmes by the industry, both voluntary and mandatory ones. The drive for ‘greener’ energy, however, means that an upcoming standard, due to be implemented in February 2016, will further reduce the energy consumed by external power adapters. In some cases, the reductions could result in as little as 20% of the levels allowed in previous standards.

IdealPower VI logoThe CEC (California Energy Commission) Level VI standard is due to come into effect on February 10, 2016 and will bring in some significant revisions and definitions. OEM manufacturers will need to be aware of new performance thresholds, direct and indirect operation models and exemptions.

The last 10 years has seen a lot of rapid development in the reduction of power consumption by external power supplies. In 2004, the CEC introduced the first mandatory standard for energy efficiency, denoting a power supply that meets EnergyStar Tier 1 and Australia’s MEPS (Maximum Efficiency Performance Standards). The EU introduced the ErP phase 1 (Energy related Products) directive in 2010 and harmonised CEC and EISA (Energy Independence and Security Act) the following year, in the ErP Directive 2009/125/EC. Around the same time, the EnergyStar certification ceased to apply to power supplies.

Today, all external power supplies must meet CEC Level IV for the USA and Canada and Level V if shipped to the EU.

The next step, driven by CEC VI, is to further reduce no-load power in single and multiple voltage external power supplies. It introduces multiple output power supplies into the regulation and also addresses external power supplies below 250W. The standard has no-load power thresholds for single voltage, external AC/DC power supplies, low voltage and basic models, for categories of 1W and below, 49 to 250W and 250W and above. There are also limits for no-load power for multiple voltage external power supplies in the same power ranges.

Another distinction of CEC Level VI is that it does not apply to direct operation power supplies, i.e. those that function in an end product without the assistance of a battery. It does apply to indirect operation devices, i.e. those devices which are not battery chargers, but which cannot operate the end product without the assistance of a battery. EISA2007 will govern the limits of indirect operation power supplies.

Exemptions to CEC Level VI include any device that may need FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval for medical use; power the charger of a detachable battery pack, or charges the battery of a product that is fully, or primarily, motor-operated; and products made available as a service or spare part by the end-product manufacturer before July 1 2008.

The EU is revising its EcoDesign Directive (or ErP II for energy related products) which is considered to be a parallel standard. Countries such as Canada and Australia are expected to adopt CEC Level VI.

OEMS must ensure compliance with all regulations for whichever region products are shipped to. For help in meeting the increased levels of energy saving required to comply with CEC Level VI, contact the IP Support team at Ideal Power, the power conversion experts.

Ideal Power provides external power supplies and adapters, open frame, encapsulated and DIN Rail power conversion products and battery chargers to markets including industrial, computing, medical, communications, LED Lighting, security, consumer and leisure. Products are sourced from market leading suppliers including EOS and Glary,

Ideal Power’s British based IP Support Engineering Team are available to work with customer’s design engineers to create modified-standard and full custom designs for quantities from 100 pieces upwards.  Their IP Support team has over 40 years of experience in the power supply industry and provides local assistance throughout the whole design process from concept, design, quotations, samples and testing to approvals and standards compliance, shipping, stock-holding and after-sales service.


VOC monitoring keep things on track!

14/07/2015

Award-winning geotechnical company, BAMRitchies Limited, is using an Ion Science handheld Tiger photoionisation detector (PID) for nightly monitoring of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations during on-site headspace testing of contaminated soil samples on railway contracts.

SONY DSC

Supplied through Ion Science’s British distributor, Shawcity, as a replacement for one of the company’s older models, BAMRitchies chose the well-proven Tiger for its portability and long battery life between charging. As it is being used in all weather conditions and environments, the instrument’s market-leading humidity and contaminant resistant PID technology was also a key factor.

Ion Science’s Tiger is independently verified as being the best performing PID, providing the most stable, repeatable readings, when tested against competing instruments in humid and contaminated conditions.

BAMRitchies provides fully integrated ground engineering services, including ‘design and construct, for government organisations, local authorities, main contractors, utilities and public / private companies. The company’s worldwide reputation is based on innovative solutions to complex geotechnical problems with reliable delivery by a large, highly skilled and well-equipped workforce.

Stuart McQuade, Senior Geotechnical Engineer at BAMRitchies comments: “Our consultant engineers specify prompt information on contamination levels on a very regular basis making it essential that we quickly found a replacement for our old instrument which had started to fail. As we’ve used Ion Science PIDs before and found them to be good quality and reliable, we were content to go with Shawcity’s recommendation of the Tiger PID.

“Consistency of performance was a key requirement as it is being used to test approximately five to ten soil samples per night. The Tiger is in use during the most severe weather and in the harshest environments so a robust design together with humidity and contamination resistance was also very important to us. Like other Ion Science instruments, the Tiger is extremely easy to use and has proved very reliable so far.”

Providing a dynamic detection range of 1 parts per billion (ppb) to 20,000 parts per million (ppm), the Tiger offers the widest measurement range of any other VOC instrument on the market.

Ready to use, straight out of the box, the instrument requires no complex set up procedures via a PC to perform basic functions and provides the best available VOC detection and software features available.

Ion Science’s Tiger also has the fastest response time on the market of just two seconds and can be connected directly to a PC via the USB offering extremely fast data download capabilities.

It has been designed for the safe replacement of batteries in hazardous environments and is intrinsically safe (IS) – meeting ATEX, IECEx, UL and CSA standards.


New monitoring network for Scottish ports!

05/07/2015

Historically, ferry masters operating off the west coast of Scotland would have to sail to a port and on arrival visually assess the weather and tide conditions before deciding whether safe berthing alongside the pier or quayside would be possible. This wastes time and fuel, and can causes immense frustration among passengers, who may see ferries come close to a port, but thereafter depart without berthing when conditions are determined by the ferry Master to be unsafe. These ferries provide a critically important lifeline service to the islands, so the reliability of ferry services is extremely important.

MV_Caledonian_Isles

With multiple sites in island locations, remote access to accurate local data providing live information on tide level and key climatic conditions could facilitate substantial improvements to the service by aiding the Masters to make a more informed decision at an earlier stage in the voyage – in some instances even before departing the previous port or harbour. The berthing of ferries is a highly skilled job, particularly during bad weather, and the decision on whether a specific ferry can safely berth at a specific port is subjective and ultimately can only be taken by the ferry Master.

Following a competitive tendering process Caledonian Maritime Assets Limited (CMAL), which owns many of the ferries, ports and harbours in the region, procured a network of 15 tide and weather stations from instrumentation specialist OTT Hydrometry. The new monitoring equipment provides live data on port conditions to enable the ferry sailing decisions to be made in a timely manner.

CMAL Harbour Master David McHardie says: “OTT installed the first monitoring station in August 2014 and the network is now almost complete with sensors providing data every 1 minute via UHF radio to ‘gateways’ in the ferry offices, which then submit the data via the internet to a central server, which can be remotely accessed by authorised users.

“We have a regulatory requirement to monitor the tide level in our statutory harbours, but this system also provides essential weather information for our ports. In the past, these measurements were taken manually, so the availability of continuous multiparameter data is an enormous improvement – not just in the quality and value of the information, but also in the safety benefits for harbour operations staff, that this provides.”

OTT_Monitoring_Station

OTT Monitoring Station

The safety considerations involved with the berthing of ferries relates not just to passengers and crew but also to the pier hands that assist with mooring operations in a wide variety of often extreme weather conditions. “Mooring operations are inherently high risk activities; handling ropes can become extremely heavy when wet and subject to enormous forces when under strain,” David says. “So, it is important for us to be able to assess the impact of wind, temperature and waves to protect harbour operations staff. Severe weather berthing conditions can also potentially cause damage to ferries and the structures within the ports, so again, detailed data on localised conditions can help prevent accidents and support insurance claims when necessary.”

The availability of live data on port conditions therefore enables the ferry Masters to make better informed decisions at an earlier stage, thereby saving time, fuel and costs. It also means that passengers are provided with earlier warnings of potential ferry cancellation.

Emphasising the growing need for data, David says: “In recent years, severe weather events appear to have become more frequent and they seem to develop faster; for example, since the monitoring network was installed, we have recorded a sudden drop in temperature of 8°C in just 5 minutes at the port of Armadale on the Isle of Skye, and a maximum wind gust of 96 knots at Castlebay on the Isle of Barra. These conditions represent a rapid deterioration of conditions and the monitoring network enables us to respond quickly and effectively.”

Each monitor is located adjacent to the main berthing area on the pier with a lockable GRP control box. The system is comprised of: an OTT radar level sensor; a Lüfft ultrasonic weather monitor measuring wind speed, gust and direction, air temperature and barometric pressure; an Adcon radio unit with back-up batteries and a marine grade antenna. The radar tide level sensor is an OTT RLS, a non-contact sensor employing pulse radar technology with a large 35m measurement range. Both the RLS and the weather sensors, which have no moving parts, have extremely low power consumption, which is vitally important for installations at remote sites. At two locations it was not possible to install a radar sensor so an OTT CBS (bubbler sensor) was installed providing comparable levels of accuracy and reliability.

Robin Guy managed the monitoring network project on behalf of OTT Hydrometry. He says: “We were obviously delighted to be awarded this contract; it’s a good example of the bespoke monitoring systems that we are able to develop, integrating our sensor, datalogging and telemetry technologies to meet customers’ specific needs.

“Before awarding the contract to OTT, David visited four of our existing installations at the Greenock Ocean Terminal near Glasgow to check the reliability of our equipment in demanding conditions. However, in addition to the ruggedness of this equipment, it has also been designed to cope with interruptions to the mains power supply. The monitors are therefore battery powered and data is transferred from the monitors to the port office gateway via low power radio.”

Monitors on end of pier!

Monitors on end of pier!

Now that the CMAL monitoring system is installed, David is looking for ways to leverage the value of the data. For example, radio data transmission works very well over water, so it should be possible to fit the same technology on ferries so that the ferry Masters can access the data directly, instead of having to call the port office for a verbal update. The OTT monitoring network also incorporates an email alert system, and whilst this has not yet been configured, it will be possible in the future for ferry masters to receive email alerts warning them when pre-specified port conditions arise. “We would also like to eventually make the data available to the public as part of an enhanced harbours information system,” David says. “However, when a ferry has berthed, with the monitoring system being located on the pier, the vessel can cause a wind shadow; which means the wind data during that period can be potentially misleading. It has to be remembered that this system remains only an aid to navigation.”

Summarising, Robin Guy says: “This system demonstrates the value of remote monitoring data, but also highlights the importance of low power, rugged, reliable instruments in harsh environments. The modularity of the system is also very important because it enables us to deploy the most appropriate instruments in each individual location.”


Successful trial for new remote Phosphate monitor!

12/12/2014

Researchers at Britain’s Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) have conducted trials on the river Thames to evaluate a new remote phosphate monitoring technology (Cycle-P) as part of a high-frequency (hourly resolution) monitoring programme that is studying river nutrient concentrations and how they are affected by algal abundance. The monitoring system ran continuously over the summer of 2014, measuring total reactive phosphate levels in the river, day and night, seven days a week.

CEH_ThamesTrial2014

These results have now been compared with manually collected samples that were analysed in a laboratory with the traditional Murphy and Riley spectrophotometric method on unfiltered samples, and Dr Mike Bowes, senior nutrient hydrochemist at CEH, says: “The Cycle-P is working really well; the system operated independently for long periods and produced results that tracked our lab samples closely.”

Most water quality parameters are relatively simple to measure with low-power accurate sensors. However, the measurement of phosphate necessitates colorimetric analysis and this presents a significant challenge in remote locations with difficult access or where mains power is not available. The Cycle PO4 from OTT Hydrometry (known as the Cycle-P) is therefore gathering considerable interest because it is battery powered and able to operate unattended in the field, running over 1,000 tests before a field service is necessary to change the reagents.

The Cycle-P is an in-situ total reactive phosphate analyser that has been designed for operation by non-chemists. Combining microfluidics with state-of-the-art optics to provide high levels of precision and accuracy, the Cycle-P stores results in an onboard logger, but when combined with telemetry, delivers almost real-time data at user-selectable intervals (typically 1 to 4 hours). The quality of the instrument’s data is underpinned by QA/QC processing in conjunction with an on-board NIST standard. The Cycle-P methodology is based on US EPA standard methods, employing pre-mixed onboard colour coded cartridges for simple reagent replacement in the field.

Phosphate is a key nutrient in the maintenance of aquatic animal and plant life. However, it is also considered to be one of the most important pollutants in surface waters. Excessive quantities, through natural accumulation or derived from human activities such as wastewater treatment and agricultural runoff, can stimulate excessive growth of algae – algal blooms. This reduces light for plants and can lead to oxygen depletion, bacterial growth and eutrophication. In addition, some algal blooms produce toxins that are harmful to other organisms. High phosphate concentrations can therefore cause enormous ecological and aesthetic damage to streams, lakes, canals, rivers and oceans.

The River Thames basin is facing growing pressures from rapid population growth, intensive agriculture, climate change and water resource challenges. Researchers are therefore investigating the changes in water chemistry and ecology that are taking place as water quality improvements are implemented under the EU Water Framework Directive. These monitoring activities provide vital scientific evidence that inform future catchment management decisions.

thames_testDr Bowes has been running a Cycle-P in the Thames at Goring in Oxfordshire since 18th March 2014, as part of the CEH Thames Initiative Research Platform . He is head of the Water Quality Processes group, which has a long track record of using phosphorus auto-analysers, and is therefore an ideal person to assess the merits of this new technology. Furthermore, his research interests include: the impact of changing water quality on periphyton and phytoplankton biomass in rivers; nutrient loads to rivers from sewage and agriculture, and the identification of factors that control the timing and magnitude of algal blooms.

Mike has tried a number of phosphate monitoring technologies in the past but has found them to be either too unreliable or power-hungry. “Much of our work involves monitoring rivers in remote sites that do not have mains power, so I was naturally very interested to learn about the Cycle-P,” he explains. “Our research is designed to identify the causes of algal blooms and to understand the factors that trigger both blooms and algal dieback; the ability to monitor phosphate in remote locations is therefore critical to the success of our work, because manual or even automatic sampling for laboratory analysis, incurs significant delays and increases costs.”

“We were very pleased to be able to help with this research,” adds OTT Hydrometry’s Nigel Grimsley. “The impact of phosphates from agricultural run-off and wastewater treatment is one of the major issues affecting surface water quality and reliable continuous monitoring is essential if this issue is to be managed effectively.

“The Cycle-P has already worked extremely well in a variety of international projects, but it was vital for its capabilities to be demonstrated in UK waters, and the CEH Thames Initiative provided an ideal platform to do so. I am grateful to CEH for the opportunity that they have provided and I look forward to reporting feedback from a number of recent further UK installations.”


A fascinating story: Trash to gas project to help life on Mars!

30/11/2014
If you are travelling to Mars on a journey that will last for several months, you need to maintain good breathing air quality and you need to manage your resources very carefully. This article describes research on the off-gases from astronaut waste; checking that they are not harmful and figuring out if they can be converted into water, oxygen and rocket propellant.

As part of a project to measure the effects of long-term isolation on astronauts, small groups of individuals have been selected to live in a tiny ‘Habitat’ perched on the upper slope of a volcano in Hawaii. In doing so, the project team has contributed to the understanding of issues that would confront a manned mission to Mars.

NASA’s Anne Caraccio analyzing waste gases during simulated Mars mission

NASA’s Anne Caraccio analyzing waste gases during simulated Mars mission

For example NASA’s Anne Caraccio studied off-gases from the crew’s trash with a portable Gasmet FTIR gas analyzer. “Waste from the crew’s everyday activities are routinely sorted and stored, but we need to know the composition of the off-gases from these materials for health and safety reasons, and also to determine whether these gases could be utilised beneficially,” Anne reports.

The work was undertaken during the second of four HI-SEAS (Hawaiʻi Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) missions which involved living with 5 other crew members for a period of 120 days in a two-story solar powered dome just 11 metres in diameter with a small attached workshop the size of a shipping container. In addition to the completion of a range of tasks that were set by the project, each crew member conducted their own research, which in Anne’s case was known as ‘Trash to Gas’, a programme working on the development of a reactor to convert waste from long-duration missions into useful commodities such as water, life-support oxygen and rocket propellant.

The main objective of the second HI-SEAS mission was to evaluate the performance and the social and psychological status of the crew members whilst they lived in cramped isolated conditions in a lava rock environment that resembled Mars.

Crew members were allowed outside of the Habitat, but in order to do so they had to wear simulated spacesuits and undergo a 5 minute mock compression/decompression. Since the FTIR gas analyser is portable (14Kg), Anne was able to conduct additional monitoring both inside and outside the Habitat in order to compare data with the waste off-gas measurements. “Size, weight and portability are obviously of major importance on a project such as this, but the main advantage of this technology was its ability to measure a large number of compounds simultaneously; I measured 24 VOCs such as acetaldehyde, methane and ethylene, but the instrument also stores spectra for the measurements so it is possible to retrospectively analyze data if it becomes necessary to look for a particular compound at a later stage.”

Anne’s monitoring provided a clear view of the most important gases within the Habitat. For example, stored waste had the highest relative levels of ethanol (due to crew members’ hygiene wipes and cleaning products) and water vapor (due to residual water from food and plant waste). The laboratory where plants were growing had the lowest relative level of methane. The waste bins had higher relative levels of nitrous oxide and pentane, and the bathroom had the highest levels of acetaldehyde.

The FTIR gas analyser, a DX4040, was supplied by the company Gasmet Technologies. “We were very pleased to be able to help with this project,” says Gasmet’s Jim Cornish. “The simultaneous monitoring of multiple compounds is a common application for our FTIR analyzers, however, they are usually employed measuring gases in stack emissions, industrial processes, greenhouse gas research and in hazmat scenarios. We usually tell prospective customers that advanced FTIR technology is simple to use; ‘it’s not rocket science’ we tell them, so I guess we will have to rephrase that now.”

The waste produced during the HI-SEAS mission was measured during the entire mission, although this was for a shorter period than would be expected of an actual long duration mission. The Trash-to-Gas reactor processed HI-SEAS waste simulant at the Kennedy Space Center with results demonstrating that a future reactor would be most efficient with specific material processing cycles to maximize the desired output. Automation will also be needed in the future Trash-to-Gas reactor because the current technology would require too much of a crew member’s logistical time. The Trash-to-Gas reactor first converts waste into carbon dioxide, which is then mixed with hydrogen in a Sabatier reaction to produce methane and water.

The Kennedy Space Center Trash-to-Gas reactor processed three waste types and produced 9% of the power that would have been needed during the HI-SEAS mission. As part of the psychological assessment, each member of the crew completed regular surveys and kept diaries. They also wore ‘sociometric’ badges that recorded conversation patterns and voice tone.

Commenting on the psychological results of the project, Anne says “The crew were essentially strangers when they entered the Habitat, which is unlike a typical space mission in which the crew would have worked and trained together for a number of months or even years. Nevertheless, the crew coped extremely well with living and working in such close proximity, and there were no significant periods of stress in my opinion.”

The third Hi-SEAS mission began on October 15, 2014. Again, a 6 member crew will conduct a similar mission, with the exception that it will last for 8 months. Anne says: “Participation in these missions requires a real passion for science, technology and space travel. The application process includes a class 2 flight medical, a personal research project proposal, essays, interviews and educational requirements, all of which is similar to the NASA astronaut application procedure.” Looking forward, she says: “The technology to travel to Mars has not yet been fully developed, but it is anticipated that a human mission could be possible in the future. The journey to Mars would take around one year, so I hope that our Trash-to-Gas research will contribute to the science that could make such a mission possible.”


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